Terminology

Basic Body Parts

mom
body
kwanjeol
joint
ulgool
face & head
muh ree
head
noon
eye
gui
ear
ko
nose
in joong
philtrum
eep
mouth
tuhk
chin
mokoomeong
throat
mok
neck
ouka
shoulder
myung chi
solar plexus
pahl
arm
pahlkup
elbow
pahlmahk
forearm
ahn pahlmahk
inner side of forearm
bahkat pahlmahk
outer side of forearm
meet pahlmahk
palm side of forearm
wi pahlmahk
back side of forearm
deung pahlmahk
back of forearm
sahnmahk
wrist
sahn
hand
sahnkal
outside edge of hand (knifehand)
sahnkal deung
inside edge of hand (ridgehand)
sahn deung
back hand
joomok
fist
sahnkahrak
finger
sahnkeut
fingertip
momtong
trunk (middle section)
huri
waist
ahrae
lower body (low section)
noolro
groin
dahree
leg
mooreup
knee
ahp jung kang yi
shin
bahl mahk
ankle
bahl
foot (or feet)
bahldung
instep
bahlbong oh ri
arch of foot
bahl nahl
outside edge of foot
an bahl nahl
inside edge of foot
bahl badak
sole of foot
ahp chook
ball of foot
dwi koomchi
heel
dwi chook
bottom of heel
bahlkeut
toes

 


Tenets of Taekwondo

ye ui
courtesy
yom chi
integrity
in nae
perseverance
kuk gi
self-control (also “jah jeh“)
baekjool
indomitable spirit (also “boolgool eui jung shin“)

 


Body Movements

mom omgigi
movement of the body
mahki
block
chagi
kick
chirugi
thrust (or punch)
chigi
strike (with the hand)
jeek gi
strike (with the foot)
bahk gi
strike (with the head)
sahn ki sool
hand technique
bahl ki sool
foot technique
kyorugi
sparring
bituro
twisting
gamya
stepping (also “omkyuh didigi“)
kuht neun
walking
uro
moving in a particular direction (e.g. “ahp uro gamya” – stepping forward)
bang hyang bakoogi
changing direction
bitkyuh surgi
escaping
tdwim yu
jumping
dora
to turn
dolmyo
spinning
mee keul myu
sliding (also “mee kul gi“)
jupgi
holding/grabbing
donzigi
throwing
goorugi
rolling/tumbling
pyihagi
dodging
hecho
spreading
moyo
gathering
bojoo
covering

 


Directions

oo
right (also “oh-ruen“)
joa
left (also “wen“)
ahp
front
ahn
inner
bahkat
outer
bahndae
reverse
dwi
back
ahnuro
inward
bahkuro
outward
whee
high (up)
whee uro
upward
guande
middle
ulgool
high section (also “sahngdahn“)
momtong
middle section (also “chungdahn“)
ahrae
low section (also “hahdahn“)

 


Rank

kagup
rank
gup
grade
dan
degree
simsa
grading (or promotional) test
simsa kwan
examiner
dan gup jedo
system of rank

 


Hand Positions

sahnkal
knifehand
sahnkal jecho
knifehand with palm up
sahnkal deung
ridgehand (also “oppun sahnkal“)
sahn bahtong
palm heel (also “bahtong sahn“)
sahn deung
back hand (also “deung sahn“)
ah keum sahn
arc hand
galkwi sahn
ripping (or raking) hand
jipke sahn
pincers hand
joomok
fist
deung joomuk
back fist
yup joomuk
side fist
me joomuk
hammer-fist
inju joomuk
forefinger one-knuckle fist
bamchu joomuk
middle-finger one-knuckle fist
doo bam joomuk
two-knuckle fist
pyun joomuk
flat (or open) fist
omji joomuk
thumb-knuckle fist
kwan soo
spearhand (also “pyun sahnkeut“)
sahnkeut
spearfinger
gawi sahnkeut
scissors-shaped spearfingers

 


Hand Attacks

bahro chirugi
straight (return) punch
bahndae chirugi
reverse punch
gullgi chirugi
hook punch
yung seuk chirugi
combination (consecutive) punch
doo bun chirugi
double punch
sae bun chirugi
triple punch
sahnkeut chirugi
spearfinger thrust
sewo chirugi
vertical punch
gotjang chirugi
vertical fist punch
dolrya chirugi
round punch
dwijubo chirugi
upset punch
soteum chirugi
spring punch
nehryuh chirugi
downward punch
chi chirugi
uppercut punch
jae chuh chirugi
upper punch (also “jae chin chirugi“)
doo joomuk chirugi
doublefist punch
dikootja chirugi
`U’ (or `C’) shaped punch (hi-lo)
sosum chirugi
double uppercut punch
keumgang chirugi
diamond-shaped punch
nalgeh chirugi
wing-shaped punch

 


Blocks

bahkat palmahk mahki
outer forearm block
ahn palmahk mahki
inner forearm block
sahng palmahk mahki
twin forearm block
ahnuro mahki
inward block
bahkuro mahki
outward block
ahrae mahki
low block
cho kyo mahki
rising block
daebi mahki
guarding block
bituro mahki
twisting block
gahwi mahki
scissors block
keumgang mahki
diamond-shaped (Hercules) block
gutjha mahki
`9′-shaped block (cross block)
yeot pero mahki
`X’-shaped block (also “kyo cha mahki“)
santeul mahki
mountain-shaped block (also “osanteul mahki“)
weh santeul mahki
part mountain-shaped block
utgallruyuh mahki
cross block (also “utgiruh mahki“)
hechuh mahki
scattered block (or wedge block)
hwang so mahki
ox (or “bull”) block
bahtangsahn nooluh mahki
pressing down block
deuluh oll ryu mahki
upward scooping fist block

 


Kicks

cha olligi
stretching kick
jillo chagi
thrusting kick
ahp chagi
front kick
yup chagi
side kick
dolrya chagi
round (roundhouse) kick
dwi chagi
back kick
bahndae dolrya chagi
reverse round kick (“hook kick” for some styles)
dwi dolrya chagi
back round kick (“hook kick” for some styles)
gullgi chagi
hook kick (also “golcho chagi” or “golro chagi“)
bahndall chagi
crescent kick (literally “half moon kick”)
hoohrio chagi
wheel kick
beet chagi
slant (or instep) kick
bahn dolrya chagi
half round kick (also “instep kick”)
beakya chagi
slap kick
nehryuh jeek gi
ax kick; literally “downward foot strike”
hwe jun chagi
swing kick
mil a chagi
pushing kick (also “mil gi chagi“)
gokwang i chagi
pickax kick
pyojuk chagi
target kick
dolmyo chagi
spinning kick
tdwim yah chagi
jumping kick
yung seuk chagi
combination (consecutive) kick
meekulmyu chagi
sliding kick (also “mikulgi chagi“)
goollruh chagi
rolling kick
natgeh tdwim yu chagi
hopping kick
nalla chagi
flying kick (also “goong jung chagi“)
gahwi chagi
scissors kick
illja chagi
linear kick
japgo chagi
holding (grasp) kick
ohpo chagi
falling kick (leg sweep)
nachu oh chagi
stooping kick

 


Stances

sohgi
stance
jah seh
posture (or stance) [used instead of “sohgi” in some styles]
ahnjun sohgi
sitting stance
ahp sohgi
front stance
ahp koo bi sohgi
front bent knee stance (also just “ahp koo bi“)
dwi sohgi
back stance
dwi koo bi sohgi
back bent knee stance (also just “dwi koo bi“)
beom sohgi
cat (or tiger) stance (also “goyang-i sohgi“)
kuht neun sohgi
walking stance
juchoom sohgi
horseback riding stance (“kima sohgi” in some styles)
mot sohgi
fighting stance
kyorugi sohgi
sparring stance
choon bi sohgi
ready stance (also “pyeonhi sohgi“)
gibon sohgi
basic stance
guande sohgi
middle stance
naranhee sohgi
parallel stance
niun ja sohgi
`L’-stance
gojang sohgi
fixed (lower-back) stance
sa sun sohgi
diagonal stance
gyuttari sohgi
fixed balance (or bent knee) stance
koh ah sohgi
crossed foot stance
kyo cha sohgi
`X’-stance
mo ah sohgi
close stance
joong-rib sohgi
neutral stance
dong yuk sohgi
dynamic stance
cha yun sohgi
natural stance
chagi sohgi
kicking stance
hahktari sohgi
crane stance (also “ue bal sohgi“)

 


Sparring

kyorugi
(free) sparring
han bun kyorugi
one step sparring
doo bun kyorugi
two step sparring
sae bun kyorugi
three step sparring
bahn ja yu kyorugi
semi free sparring
machu oh kyorugi
arranged free sparring
jeon
round (competition segment)
shihap
bout or match
jeum
point
shi gan
time out
keum bahk
out of bounds
kyong go
warning
gam jeum
deduction of point
shil kyuk
disqualification
boo sang
injury
seung
win
bi kim
tie
chung
blue
hong
red
hin
white
jajun bahl
use of footwork to dodge a technique
nachugi
body evasion by “ducking”

 


Forms

poomse
form (pronounced “poom-say”), also “hyung
tul
patterns
jang
similar to a page or a chapter
yung seuk
combination
sa bang hyang
four direction

 


Uniform

dhee
belt
dobok uniform
ha’i training pants

 


Equipment

hogoo
chest protector (also “bohogoo“)
sahn boho jang kap
protective gloves
pahlmahk bohodae
forearm guard
jung kang yi bohodae
shin guard
nang shim bohodae
groin cup
muh ree bohodae
protective head gear
eep bohodae
mouth guard

 


Commands

cha ryuht
attention
choon bi
ready
bah ro
return to starting position
dwi uro dorah
about face
dorah
turn
elosoh
stand
gomahn
stop (also “mum cho“)
geuk gi hyang ha yoh
face the flag
jwa woo hyang woo
face each other
sah bum nim keh
face instructor/master
sun bae nim keh
face senior student
simsa kwan nim keh
face examiner/tester
dobok dahnjung
fix your uniform
dhee dahnjung
fix your belt
hai sahn
class dismissed (also “hae cho“)
jonglee
line up (also “ji hap” and “jung yul“)
kyung nae
bow
ahnjoe
sit
kool o angi
kneel (kneeling)
bah ro angi
sit in lotus position (yoga posture)
bahl bah kwah
switch your stance (switch your feet)
koo ryung op see
in your own time
seijak
begin
shiuh
relax
kalyeo
break (or stop)
kae sok
continue

 


Common Phrases

ye
yes (also “ne“)
anio
no
kahm sa hamnida
thank you
komap sumnida
less formal form of “thank you”
cheon maeneyo
you’re welcome (literally “Don’t mention it!”)
cheuk ka hamnida
congratulations!
ahnyong hasimnika
How are you? (literally “Are you well?”
ahnyong hasayo
less formal form of “How are you?”
yoboseyo
hello
ahnyonghee gasipsiyo
good-bye (to the person who is leaving)
ahnyonghee gyesipsiyo
good-bye (to the person who is staying)
ahnyonghee gasayo
less formal form of “good-bye” (to the person who is leaving)
ahnyonghee gyesayo
less formal form of “good-bye” (to the person who is staying)
pangap seumnida
Pleased to meet you!
toh poepkeseoyo
See you later!
eoseo osayo
Welcome!
choesong hamnida
I’m sorry
mian hamnida
less formal form of “I’m sorry!”
shillye hamnida
Excuse me! (asking forgiveness for an impolite act)
kwaen chanayo
That’s all right
ahlge seoyo
I understand
moreuge seoyo
I don’t understand
chaemi isseoyo
It is fun (or interesting)!

 


Titles

do joo nim
founder (of the art)
kwan jang nim
grandmaster
chung sah nim
chief instructor (or “chief master”)
sah bum nim
instructor (or “master”)
sah boo nim
more intimate and respectful form of “sah bum nim
kyo sah nim
teacher (also “seon saeng nim“)
sun bae nim
senior student
hu bae nim
junior student
hak saeng
student
suryun saeng
trainee
jeja
pupil
joo sim
referee
bu sim
judge
bae sim
juror
kae sim
time keeper
ki rohk
recorder

 


Miscellaneous

dojang
place where one trains (house of discipline)
gong-kyok
offense
hosinsool
self-defense
mukyum
meditation
kihap
yell
jung shin yuk
mental strength, or martial art spirit
jung shin dong il
concentration of the mind
jung shin soo yang
development (training) of the mind
jung do
the “right” way (correctness of action)
sim shin dahn ryun
mind and body discipline
chung myung kwon
developmentĀ of the body, mind, and spirit
chi shik
knowledge of mind and thoughts
heng dong
execution (action) of the body and its techniques
pil seung
certain victory
il sok pil sai
one strike must kill
ho hyoop
breathing
shim ho hyoop
breathing control (deep breathing)
himm
force or power
ki
life-energy
dahnjun
the center of your “ki
bokboo
the stomach area where “ki” is generated.
choong sim
center of gravity
chojum
focus (focal point) of your energy
jeung ga
increase (to strengthen or augment)
kyuk pa
breaking (the art of breaking boards, bricks, and tiles)
shibum
demonstration (or exhibition)
pyugi
stretching
ye jol
etiquette
jon gyung
respect
choong sung
loyalty (also “eui ri“)
jung jhik
honesty
kahjok
family



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